Lược sử các lý thuyết Hướng nghiệp

Tài liệu giúp các học viên hiểu rõ về chiều dài lịch sử của các lý thuyết hướng nghiệp khởi đầu từ những năm 1900 cho đến hiện nay.

Time Theory Representative(s) Description Ref
Early 1900s Person-environment fit, trait factor Frank Parsons, Williamson, E. G., John Holland Vocational guidance is accomplished first by studying the individual, then by surveying occupations, and finally by matching the individual with the occupation.

When using this theory, considerable attention is given to how to classify these characteristics, how to measure them in some objective way, and finally, how to make a direct relationship between the characteristics of the individual and the characteristics of an occupation or job.

Holland’s theory

Parsons’ theory 

1939 Traits & Factor Theory



Began with EG Williamson and DG Patterson The match between individual & occupation (implies available occupations and LMI)

Based on Frank Parson concept:  know self; know work; make match.

Holland model is the most widely used T/F inventory in the world

  • Usually a formal assessment (proven reliability & validity)
  • Focus on the goal and the plan
  • Used most frequently in K-12 education; early post secondary years
  • Often administered in K-12 in a group setting.
  • Any person who would benefit from learning about interest, skills, values & relation to occupations.  
  • A starting point to start talking about themselves.    
  • TF tools are used to measure:  Interests, Skills, Values, Personality.   
  • Initially our focus was on interests and skills.  
More detail in specific theory
Late 1950s Developmental Eli Ginzberg & Associates, Tiedman, Donald Super, Gottfredson, Roe Career development is a process that takes place over the life span. Career development activities should be designed to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of life.

Super’s latest contribution to the field (Brown, 2002) was his Archway of Career Determinants. In this graphic (see Figure 3.5) he attempted to summarize his life’s work.

Super’s theory

Gottfredson’s Theory

Mid 20th century continuing for 30 yrs Donald Super
  • Importance of life roles, self concept, values, and stage of life  impacts our career across our life span.  
  • Career development tasks:  Growth, Exploration, Establishment, disengagement. 
  • Career Rainbow.  Introduced importance of self concept, and values as a part of career decisions
  • Focus on self efficacy/self concept in relation to career choice.
  • Importance of Values in career decision making (Duane Brown specialized in values)
  • Took a “developmental” perspective (people will engage in different career tasks throughout their life)
More detail in specific theory
1960s Client-centred Carl Rogers Career development is focused on the nature of the relationship between the helper and client. It encompasses the core conditions of unconditional positive regards, genuineness, congruence and empathy. Client-centered therapy – Harvard Health
Late 1970s Social learning John D. Krumboltz The individual’s unique learning experiences over their lifespan develop primary influences that lead to career choice. 

  • The impact on heredity, environment, & learning exp on career choice or development.    
  • Focus on learning & experiences – creating a more satisfying environment for self – less tied to formal assessment (more structured questions).  Importance of role models & mentoring


Four Factors influence Career Decision Making:

  1. genetic endowment, i.e. race, sex, intelligence and special abilities
  2. environmental conditions and events, e.g. family experience and training   opportunities
  3. learning experiences, e.g. instrumental and associative learning
  4. task approach skills, e.g. learning skills.


Three types of consequences arise from these four influences:

  • self-observation generalisations, e.g. I’m good at English
  • task approach skills, e.g. seeking information about work
  • actions, e.g. applying for a course of study.
Integrating the Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
1986 Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Watching what others do and the human thought process influences the careers we choose Bandura’s theory 
1990s Transition Theory – 4S Model (Schlossber) Nancy K. Schlossberg Transition theorists focus on points in time when change is occurring, rather than on the total life span. As a career services provider, one would examine the factors that determine how an individual will cope with a transition rather than on its outcomes.


Nancy K. Schlossberg (1989) describes transition as an event (e.g., getting a job or being promoted) or nonevent (e.g., not getting the job or promotion)that result in a change of roles, routines, or relationships. She proposed the 4-S model to describe the four parts to transition:

  • Situation – a transition is triggered by a situation
  • Self – the individual copes with transition using their strengths and experiences
  • Supports – the people and resources available to help deal with transitions
  • Strategy – a plan to get through and past the transition
Schlossberg’s Transition Theory
1990s Happenstance John D. Krumboltz Chance events play a role in every career. The goal for clients is to generate beneficial chance events and have the ability to take advantage of them.

  • Being comfortable with uncertainty
  • Thinking differently about the goal/setting and planning process for our clients.  
  • We also begin to think differently about career pathways. 
  • We also begin to think differently about “passion.” 
  • People need to expand their capabilities and interests, not make decisions on existing characteristics only.
  • People need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume that occupations will remain stable.
  • People need to be empowered to take action, not merely to be given a diagnosis.
  • career counsellors need to play a major role in dealing with all career problems, not just occupational selection. As such, they should promote client learning.
  • Aligned with Chaos and Human Design Theory of planning a career in a changing economic or career environment 
  • 100% predictability impossible; the system is dynamic (understanding changes in the world and in the person); The process of “planning and goal setting” began to change to being “planful”
Krumboltz’s theory 
1990s Narrative therapy Michael White and David Epston, Gregory Bateson

Larry Cochran

Clients are encouraged to separate themselves from their problems (ie, the problem becomes external). The client makes sense of their experiences by using stories.

Truth is discovered subjectively through dialogue rather than through objective testing. This approach emphasises the individual’s experience and decision making through exploring personal constructs and the client’s narrative about their life.

Review of Career counseling: A narrative approach
1990s Te Whare Tapa Whā Mason Durie Māori health is a balance between four interacting dimensions: te taha wairua (the spiritual side); te taha hinengaro (thoughts and feelings); te taha tinana (the physical side) and te taha whānau (family). Te Whare Tapa Whā 
1990s The Integrative Life Planning Theory of Sunny Hansen Sunny Hansen Hansen (1997) defines integrative life planning (ILP) in a way that is similar to Super’s approach, as a way of seeing self and world that takes into account both personal development and the contexts in which we live; local, national, and global change; work, family, education, and leisure changes; cultural changes and the changing roles of women and men; the relative importance of various life roles (that is, learning, loving, working, relaxing); the need for reflection on one’s own developmental priorities for mind, body, and spirit; and the importance of change itself, both personal and social (p. 17). Integrative Life Planning (ILP): A holistic theory for career counseling with adults.
1990s Cognitive Information Processing Theory Sampson, Lenz, Reardon, & Peterson Cognitive information processing (CIP) (Sampson, Lenz, Reardon, & Peterson, 1999) is an approach to career development and services that has generated a great deal of attention. It looks at three factors: (1) self- understanding; (2) occupational knowledge; and (3) how we cognitively process this information. Applying Cognitive Information Processing Theory to Career Development
1990s Social Cognitive Career Theory Lent, Brown, & Hackett The social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) attempts to add a larger context to one’s thinking about career development and career planning by looking at many facets of an individual’s life and how they interact. Not only does it consider individual and environmental factors, it is based on the critical relationship among self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, and personal goals in the career decision-making process. Social Cognitive Career Theory – Career Development – IResearchNet
1997 Integrated Life Planning Sunny Hansen Sunny Hansen’s Integrative Life Planning theory incorporates the identification of meaning as vital in the process of career development. Hansen’s(2001, 2002) approach evolved over 35 years of experience working in the areas of career development and counseling. She considered the impact of careers, communities and families on individuals, and focused on the cultural context for life changes. Six critical life tasks connecting the important life concepts for individuals grew from her observations and included:

  • Finding work that needs doing in changing global contexts
  • Weaving our lives into a meaningful whole by integrating personal values into work
  • Connecting family and work (negotiating roles and relationships)
  • Valuing pluralism and inclusivity through cultural diversity
  • Managing personal transitions and organizational change
  • Exploring spirituality, purpose, and meaning
2007 Strengths-based Approach Schutt This approach changes the focus from problem solving and deficits to a focus on strengths and successes. It is a theory that emphasizes the power of the individual in terms of self- knowledge and self-determination (Schutt, 2007). A Strengths-Based Approach to Career Development
2002 Value-Based Career Decision Making Brown Brown’s (2002) approach emphasizes the role that values play in career selection. Many people don’t think much about their values, especially their importance in career decision-making. According to Brown, learning about one’s values is critically important to one’s feeling of satisfaction on the job. He believes that values guide decision making, provide standards by which we judge our actions and those of others, serve as the basis for setting goals, allow us to place a worth on an object or a situation, and help us to determine how our needs are met. Brown’s Values-Based Career Theory – IResearchNet
2005 Career Construction Theory Mark L. Savickas Career Construction Theory explains the interpretive and interpersonal processes by which individuals organize their behavioral dispositions, impose direction on their vocational behavior, and make meaning of their vocational development.

The career construction theory (Savickas, 2005) is built on Super’s theoretical framework with an additional focus on making meaning through a narrative approach. This theory goes beyond scores on assessments and encourages counselors to consider an individual’s story including their context, with whom they interact, and how they derive meaning. Key concepts around this theory include:

Self-construction: individuals develop from childhood where they first begin as actors, then agents, and finally authors of their lives and careers.

Life themes that guide career choices address why people make their career choice, what personality types might fit with a particular career, and how the individual can adapt to their career choice

Career Construction Theory
2006 Systems Theory Framework Wendy Patton and Mary McMahon Central to the STF is the individual system within which is depicted a range of intrapersonal influences on career development, such as personality, ability, gender, and sexual orientation. Some of these influences have received considerable attention by career theorists and others have not. As individuals do not live in isolation, the individual system is connected with influences that comprise the individual’s social system as well as the broader environmental/societal system. The Systems Theory Framework Of Career Development And Counseling
2011 The Chaos Theory of Careers Jim Bright The Chaos Theory of Careers (CTC; Pryor & Bright, 2011) construes both individuals and the contexts in which they develop their careers in terms of complex dynamical systems. Such systems perpetually operate under influences of stability and change both internally and in relation to each other. Spotlight on the chaos theory of careers
2016 Human Centered Design Thinking & Career Planning HCD gives clients a path to follow that allows them to explore career options.  They don’t have to know what they want. The goal of design thinking is coherency. Career is redefined as connecting the dots between who you are, what you believe, and what you are doing.    In HCD, the principles of design thinking are applied to the challenge of building a career in a world that is constantly changing and requires forward-thinking action in the face of uncertainty.  

RATHER, passion is a result of good life design, but not the source.   Passion comes AFTER a person has discovered something you like and have developed mastery. 

Dave Evans and Bill Burnett. Designing your Life:  How to Build a Well-Lived, Joyful Life

Nguồn tham khảo

  1. Timeline of career theories and models – Govt New Zealand 
  2. Facilitating Career Development, Student Manual, Revised 4th Edition, An Instructional Program for Career Services Providers and Other Career Development Providers – NCDA
  3. Love your career – Career theories 
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  5. Brown, D. (2002). Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  6. Hansen, L. S. (1997). Integrative life planning: Critical tasks for career development and changing life patterns. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  7. Hansen, S., & Suddarth, B. (2008). What is integrative life planning? Career Developments, 24(4), 6–9.
  8. Harris-Bowlsbey, J., Riley-Dikel, M., & Sampson, J. (2002). The Internet: A tool for career planning (2nd ed.). Tulsa, OK: National Career Development Association.
  9. Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  10. Holland, J. L. (2001). The Self-directed Search. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  11. Krumboltz, J. D. (2009). The happenstance learning theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 17, 137– 53.
  12. Krumboltz, J. D., & Levin, A. S. (2004). Luck is no accident: Making the most of happenstance in your life and career. Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publishers.
  13. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122.
  14. Maslow, A. (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
  15. National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (2004, September 30). National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG) Framework. Retrieved from: http://ncda.org/aws/ NCDA/asset_manager/get_file/3384?ver=46317